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How to Identify and Get Rid of Them


German cockroach on a green leafGerman cockroach on a green leaf

The German cockroach, scientifically known as Blattella germanica, is one of the most common cockroach species found worldwide.

Known for their ability to rapidly reproduce and adapt, these pests pose a significant threat to households and businesses alike. They are notorious for their resilience and survival skills, often thriving in environments where other species cannot.

German cockroaches are easily identifiable by their small size, typically measuring between just a few millimeters to about a half-inch in length. Both males and females of this species possess wings, although they rarely fly.

The nymphs, or immature cockroaches, go through several molts before reaching the adult stage, a process known as the nymphal stage.

These cockroaches are not just a nuisance but also a major health concern. They are known carriers of various pathogens and allergens, which can lead to illnesses such as asthma attacks, food poisoning, and dysentery.

Their feces and shed skin can also trigger allergic reactions, making prompt and effective pest control crucial when dealing with a German cockroach infestation.

In this article, I’ll share everything you need to know about German roaches, including how to identify them and get rid of them effectively.

What is a German Cockroach?

The German cockroach, scientifically known as Blattella germanica, is one of the most common cockroach species found worldwide. This pest is particularly notorious for its rapid reproduction and adaptability, making it a major factor in various infestations.

Lateral view of a German cockroachLateral view of a German cockroach

They are primarily nocturnal and prefer warm, humid environments. They are often found in bathrooms and kitchens, hiding during the day in cracks and crevices, behind appliances like refrigerators, and even in drawers or under sinks.

These pests are omnivorous and will eat almost anything, including crumbs, pet food, and garbage, making sanitation a key factor in controlling infestations.

One of the reasons German cockroaches are such a concern is their potential to spread pathogens and allergens. They can carry bacteria, including those that cause food poisoning and dysentery, on their bodies and in their feces.

Additionally, their shed skins and feces can trigger allergic reactions and asthma attacks, particularly in sensitive individuals.

Despite their name, German cockroaches are not native to Germany, but their exact origin is unclear. What is clear, however, is that these pests are incredibly resilient. They can survive cold temperatures and periods of starvation, and have even been known to show resistance to certain insecticides.

Therefore, a combined approach is often necessary to effectively manage German cockroach infestations.

Lifecycle Of A German Cockroach

The lifecycle of a German cockroach is an intriguing process involving several developmental stages. The most common cockroach species worldwide, the German cockroach, has a reputation for being a significant pest due to its rapid breeding capabilities and adaptability.

German cockroach laying an eggGerman cockroach laying an egg

The entire life cycle of a German cockroach begins when females lay an ootheca, a typical egg case, containing approximately thirty to forty eggs. The ootheca is typically hidden in dark, secluded areas like cracks, crevices, or even within clutter, such as cardboard boxes or grocery bags, to protect the eggs from predators.

Nymph and adult German cockroachesNymph and adult German cockroaches

After a few weeks, the eggs hatch into nymphs, which are immature cockroaches that lack wings. The nymphal stage is a critical part of the cockroach’s development. During this stage, the nymphs undergo several molts, growing larger with each molt until they reach adulthood.

The number of molts varies, but it usually takes about six to seven instars (molts) for a nymph to mature into an adult. The size of a mature German cockroach is about half an inch (12-15 mm) long. Both males and females have wings, but only males fly.

How to Identify a German Cockroach

German cockroaches are one of the most common cockroach species found worldwide. Recognizing them is the first step to dealing with a potential infestation. But what do they look like?

Adult German cockroaches are typically about half an inch long (12-16 mm), with an oval and flattened shape that allows them to easily slip into cracks and crevices.

German cockroach isolated in white backgroundGerman cockroach isolated in white background

They are tan to light brown in color and have two distinctive dark stripes running lengthwise on their pronotum (the plate-like structure that covers the thorax).

One major factor that can help in identification is the presence of wings. Both males and females have wings, but don’t be fooled – despite having wings, German cockroaches are not good fliers. Instead, they tend to run swiftly when disturbed.

How Did I Get German Roaches?

These pests are usually introduced into homes unknowingly. They can hitch a ride inside grocery bags, cardboard boxes, and even used appliances. German cockroaches are tin and this makes it easy for them to hide in small cracks, crevices, and bindings and go unnoticed.

A major factor contributing to their spread is poor sanitation. Leaving dishes in the sink, crumbs on the floor, pet food out overnight, and neglecting to clean up spills can attract these pests. They are scavengers and will eat just about anything, so any source of food can be appealing to them.

Moisture is another attractant for German cockroaches. They thrive in damp environments, so areas like bathrooms and under refrigerators and other appliances are ideal hiding spots. Leaky pipes and water sources that are not properly maintained can also contribute to an infestation.

German cockroach on a toothbrush headGerman cockroach on a toothbrush head

Clutter, such as stacks of newspapers and cardboard boxes, can provide these pests with plenty of hiding spots, making it more difficult to detect and eliminate an infestation.

Cold temperatures can also drive these pests indoors, seeking warmth. Once inside, they can reproduce rapidly.

Common Behavior Of German Cockroaches

German cockroaches are nocturnal pests, which means they are most active during the night.

During the day, they prefer to hide in dark, moist areas. These include cracks and crevices in bathrooms, behind appliances such as refrigerators, and in drawers or under sinks. They can also be found in cluttered areas, such as behind cardboard boxes or in grocery bags.

One of the unique behaviors of german cockroaches is their preference for tight spaces. They are attracted to cracks and crevices where their bodies can touch both the top and bottom surfaces. This behavior makes them particularly difficult to eliminate, as they can hide in the smallest of spaces.

German cockroach on a white surfaceGerman cockroach on a white surface

Cockroaches are known for their survival skills. They can survive in cold temperatures and can go for months without food. However, they cannot survive without access to water sources for more than two weeks. Therefore, moisture control is crucial in managing a cockroach infestation.

German cockroaches are omnivorous, meaning they will eat almost anything. However, they prefer sweet, fatty, and starchy foods. They are attracted to crumbs, spills, and even pet food. They can also consume non-food items such as glue, soap, and book bindings.

Do German Cockroaches Bite?

While it is a common concern among those dealing with a pest infestation, the question “Do German cockroaches bite?” is thankfully one that can be answered with a “rarely”.

The species Blattella germanica, more commonly known as the German cockroach, is not known for biting humans. However, in cases of severe infestations where the population of cockroaches greatly outnumbers the available food sources, they may resort to biting.

Group of German cockroachesGroup of German cockroaches

German cockroaches, both males and females, are omnivorous scavengers. They prefer to feast on crumbs, spills, pet food, and garbage. They are even known to eat the bindings of books and cardboard boxes.

However, they are not typically aggressive towards humans. The nymphs, in their nymphal stage, are more likely to bite as they explore their environment, but these instances are extremely rare.

While the risk of German cockroaches biting is minimal, they still pose a major health risk. They are carriers of various pathogens and bacteria, including those that cause food poisoning, dysentery, and other illnesses.

Furthermore, the feces, molts, and bodies of German cockroaches contain allergens that can trigger allergic reactions and asthma attacks, particularly in sensitive individuals.

Signs Of A German Cockroach Infestation

Detecting a German cockroach infestation early is crucial to prevent a full-blown pest issue. Here are some signs that might indicate their presence in your home:


The most obvious sign of a German cockroach infestation is seeing the pests themselves. Adult German cockroaches are about half an inch (12-16 mm) long, with tan to light brown bodies. Both males and females have wings, but they rarely fly. Instead, they scurry quickly from one hiding place to another.

Nymphs and Egg Cases

German cockroach females produce a typical egg case, known as an ootheca, which they carry around until the eggs inside are ready to hatch. These oothecas are light brown and about a quarter of an inch long. If you find these, it’s a clear sign of an infestation.

Egg cases of German cockroachesEgg cases of German cockroaches

Moreover, you may also spot nymphs, which are immature cockroaches. They go through several molts and developmental stages, known as instars, before reaching adulthood. These nymphs look like smaller versions of adult roaches but lack wings.


Another telltale sign of a German cockroach infestation is their feces, which look like black pepper or coffee grounds. You may find these droppings in drawers, on countertops, and around appliances.


A significant infestation of German cockroaches can produce a musty, unpleasant odor. This smell is often noticeable in areas where they are congregating or hiding.


German cockroaches can cause damage to various items in your home. They are known to chew on bindings of books, cardboard boxes, and even on the labels of canned goods.

Knowing these signs can help you identify a German cockroach infestation early. If you suspect an infestation, it’s best to conduct a thorough inspection and consider professional pest control services to eliminate these pests effectively..

How To Get Rid Of German Cockroaches

Here are some steps you can take to control and eliminate these pests from your home.

Step 1: Sanitize Your Home

Sanitation is a major factor in controlling German cockroach infestations. Keeping your home clean can significantly reduce the likelihood of an infestation and help eliminate any existing pests.

Cockroaches thrive in areas rich in food sources, moisture, and hiding spots. They are attracted to crumbs, spills, and unclean dishes left in the sink. Ensure your kitchen appliances, such as refrigerators and stoves, are clean and free of food debris. Regularly inspect and clean areas where food is stored, including cupboards and drawers.

Young woman with pink gloves holding a cockroachYoung woman with pink gloves holding a cockroach

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Bathrooms are another common area for german cockroach survival due to the high levels of moisture. Regularly clean your bathroom, paying attention to crevices and cracks where cockroaches, especially nymphs in their nymphal stage, may hide.

Remember, even a tiny crumb can be a source of food for a cockroach. Regularly vacuuming carpets and mopping floors can help eliminate food sources. Be mindful of pet food as well, as it can attract cockroaches.

Clutter provides hiding places for cockroaches. Cardboard boxes, grocery bags, and even book bindings can serve as hiding spots for these pests. Regularly decluttering your home can help reduce these hiding spots and make your home less attractive to cockroaches.

Garbage is another major attractant for cockroaches. Ensure your garbage cans are sealed and take out the trash regularly.

Step 2: Place Bait

The second step in controlling german cockroach infestations involves the use of baits. Baits are a highly effective method for eliminating these pests, particularly when used in conjunction with sanitation efforts. They come in various forms such as gel baits, bait stations, and insecticide dusts.

Cockroach bait with lots of lured cockroachesCockroach bait with lots of lured cockroaches

Gel bait is a common choice due to its versatility. It can be applied in tiny amounts and placed in strategic locations where cockroaches are likely to frequent. These include behind appliances, under sinks, in drawers, and within cracks and crevices.

The bait contains a slow-acting insecticide mixed with a food attractant. Roaches are drawn to the bait, consume it, and typically die within a few hours to a few days.

Bait stations work similarly, but they are enclosed to protect the bait from dust and other contaminants. They also prevent pets and children from coming into contact with the bait. The roaches enter the station, eat the bait, and then leave to die.

Insecticide dusts, like boric acid powder, can be used in conjunction with baits. These powders are typically sprinkled in areas where roaches travel, such as behind appliances and in cracks and crevices. The roaches walk through the dust, which sticks to their bodies and is ingested when they groom themselves.

For baits to be effective, it’s crucial to eliminate other competing food sources. This means maintaining good sanitation practices, like cleaning up spills and crumbs promptly, washing dishes immediately after use, and storing food in sealed containers. Also, remember to regularly take out the trash and seal your garbage cans.

It’s also important to remember that baits, while highly effective, are not an instant solution. They require time to work. Depending on the size of the infestation, it can take weeks to months to completely eliminate a german cockroach population.

An added advantage of using baits is that they can control cockroaches at all stages of their lifecycle. From the nymphal stage to adults, all are susceptible to the baits. This is crucial in managing an infestation as german cockroaches breed rapidly and one female can produce up to several hundred offspring in her lifetime.

Step 3: Apply Insecticide Dust To Cracks And Crevices

After ensuring your home is clean and free from crumbs, spills, and other sources of food for the pests, and placing cockroach baits strategically, the next step in dealing with German cockroach infestations is to apply insecticide dust to cracks and crevices.

Insecticide dusts, such as those containing boric acid or diatomaceous earth, are highly effective in controlling cockroach populations. These powders work by sticking to the bodies of the roaches as they crawl through treated areas. The dust then slowly dehydrates and kills the pests.

Boric acid powder with a spoonBoric acid powder with a spoon

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

To apply, lightly dust the insecticide in areas where you’ve seen roaches or suspect they might be hiding. Be sure to focus on cracks, crevices, and other hard-to-reach places. Remember, a little goes a long way with these products. Too much dust can actually deter roaches from walking through it.

In addition to cracks and crevices, you should also consider dusting areas where roaches may enter your home, such as around doors, windows, and where utility pipes enter the house. Remember to reapply the dust every few months or as directed on the product label.

Step 4: Use Additional Insecticides (IGR) If Necessary

In the fight against German cockroach infestations, sometimes baits and insecticide dusts may not be enough, especially in severe cases. If the infestation persists, it might be necessary to resort to additional insecticides. One such effective measure is the use of Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs).

IGRs are chemicals that mimic the hormones in pests and disrupt their normal growth and development. When used against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica), one of the most common cockroach species, IGRs prevent the cockroaches from reaching their adult stage, effectively breaking their entire life cycle.

IGR sand on white surfaceIGR sand on white surface

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

IGRs can be particularly useful in managing the nymphal stages of the German cockroach. Nymphs are the developmental stages of the cockroach before they molt into adults. By disrupting these stages, IGRs ensure that no new adults can emerge to continue the infestation.

Moreover, IGRs are safe to use around pets and humans, making them a beneficial tool in your pest control arsenal. However, they should be used as part of an integrated pest management approach, not as a standalone solution.

It’s important to note that while IGRs can be highly effective, they work slowly compared to other insecticides. It may take several weeks to see a significant reduction in the cockroach population. Therefore, patience and persistence are key when using these products.

Step 5: Take Preventative Measures

Preventing a German cockroach infestation is much easier than dealing with one. Here are several proactive steps you can take to avoid a future infestation:

  • Sanitation: This goes back to our first step here – maintain good sanitation practices. Clean up spills, crumbs, and dishes immediately after use. Regularly vacuum and mop your floors and keep your bathrooms and sink areas dry. Cockroaches are attracted to moisture and food sources, so eliminating these can help prevent an infestation.
  • Seal Cracks and Crevices: German cockroaches, especially nymphs and females, can fit into cracks as small as about a millimeter (mm) wide. Sealing these cracks and crevices can prevent them from entering your home.
  • Inspect Your Groceries: Sometimes, german cockroaches can hitch a ride into your home via grocery bags or cardboard boxes. Always check these items before bringing them into your house.
  • Limit Clutter: Clutter can provide hiding spots for german cockroaches. Regularly decluttering your home, particularly areas like drawers, behind appliances, and under sinks, can minimize potential hiding spots.
  • Store Food Properly: Store food in airtight containers, including pet food. Leaving food out can attract cockroaches and provide them with a source of nourishment.
  • Regular Inspections: Regularly inspect your home for signs of cockroaches. Look for feces, egg cases (ootheca), and shed skins (molts) in potential hiding spots. Using sticky traps can also help monitor for any cockroach activity.
  • Temperature Control: German cockroaches thrive in warm conditions. Maintaining a cooler home environment can help deter them.
  • Use Insecticides: Regularly using sprays, powders, and gel baits can help deter cockroaches. Consider using an insect growth regulator (IGR) to interrupt the cockroach’s life cycle.

Step 6: Call Professionals

If all else fails, or if you are dealing with a major infestation, it might be time to call professional pest control services. German cockroach infestations can be especially stubborn due to their rapid breeding cycle and resistance to many common insecticides.

Professional pest control worker spraying a pesticide in the kitchen with cockroaches on the floorProfessional pest control worker spraying a pesticide in the kitchen with cockroaches on the floor

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Professionals have access to a wider range of tools and chemicals, including powerful insecticide dusts, and specialized sprays. They also have the knowledge and experience to use these tools effectively and safely.

A professional pest control service will conduct a thorough inspection of your home, identifying the source of the infestation, the extent of the problem, and the most effective treatment plan. They will also provide advice on preventing future infestations.

Remember, the goal is not just to kill the visible cockroaches, but to eliminate the entire life cycle – from egg to nymph to adult. This requires a comprehensive and coordinated approach that often goes beyond what the average homeowner can do on their own.


Other Guides from Planet Natural:

Should You Try Cockroach Bombs? What are the Common Problems?

Oriental Roaches – Identify, Prevent, and Get Rid of Them

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